Find Politically Exposed Persons worldwide

We consolidate global data sources about public office holders into an easy-to-use dataset.

What are Politically Exposed Persons?

Politically exposed persons (PEP) is a term from the financial services industry to describe individuals who have been entrusted with a prominent public function. This might include members of cabinets, parliaments, senior public servants and military personnel, or managers of state-owned companies.

Being classified as a PEP does not imply any misconduct. However, the concept is important because PEPs and members of their families should be the subject of enhanced public scrutiny. Identifying PEPs and conducting enhanced due diligence on the origins of their wealth is mandated by financial crime laws in most countries.

Our take on PEP data

The scope of PEP data is less well-defined compared to anti-money laundering datasets such as sanctions lists. Our goal is therefore to make the scope and depth of our data coverage transparent and publish the underlying methodology.

By mapping out the political positions that should be included on a country-by-country basis, we define quality metrics that measure coverage across time, jurisdiction and level of government.

We focus on automating the collection of PEP data rather than relying on the manual monitoring political events and election results. Our ultimate objective is to help expand the coverage of political persons in community-driven data resources like Wikidata. This way, the information ultimately becomes a commodity, produced via a distributed process.

Data coverage

PositionsPEPsRCAs
Africa
Eastern Africa
British Indian Ocean Territory33-
Burundi392722
Comoros2977-
Djibouti40106-
Eritrea3653-
Ethiopia59811
French Southern Territories11-
Kenya711,0508
Madagascar492911
Malawi552633
Mauritius441011
Mozambique909984
Rwanda581731
Seychelles3665-
Somalia523064
Somaliland487-
South Sudan681,1392
Uganda1008314
United Republic of Tanzania699435
Zambia63359-
Zimbabwe729968
Middle Africa
Angola1527495
Cameroon1091,01310
Central African Republic725683
Chad693472
Congo1038562
Democratic Republic of the Congo1721,91510
Equatorial Guinea1006125
Gabon662144
Sao Tome and Principe2766-
Zaire-3-
Northern Africa
Algeria876577
Egypt7882412
Libya492944
Morocco781,08331
Sudan694142
Tunisia6173219
Western Sahara24-
Southern Africa
Botswana511235
Eswatini331461
Lesotho412376
Namibia543311
South Africa1011,08519
Western Africa
Benin631734
Burkina Faso574163
Cabo Verde33160-
Côte d’Ivoire693534
Gambia392592
Ghana7693916
Guinea7431013
Guinea-Bissau501991
Liberia351523
Mali563161
Mauritania482232
Niger582223
Nigeria16,89025,51122
Saint Helena314-
Senegal622945
Sierra Leone552091
Togo602855
Americas
Caribbean
Anguilla420-
Antigua and Barbuda33601
Aruba1740-
Bahamas43971
Barbados40702
British Virgin Islands530-
Cayman Islands3868-
Cuba6759014
Curaçao423-
Dominica29631
Dominican Republic402792
Grenada28461
Haiti351954
Jamaica481454
Montserrat412-
Puerto Rico485-
Saint Barthélemy321-
Saint Kitts and Nevis29534
Saint Lucia34633
Saint Martin (French Part)526-
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines28422
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)535-
Trinidad and Tobago561611
Turks and Caicos Islands426-
United States Virgin Islands418-
Central America
Belize391765
Costa Rica441576
El Salvador431543
Guatemala423706
Honduras422991
Mexico1364,80666
Nicaragua341453
Panama341664
Northern America
Bermuda17621
Canada2573,741109
Greenland31072
Saint Pierre and Miquelon444-
United States of America1,06332,100918
South America
Argentina1021,58584
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)394794
Brazil24,445114,825115
Chile9456,82973
Colombia3,0247,81347
Ecuador4944131
Falkland Islands (Malvinas)428-
Guyana421101
Paraguay38220-
Peru831,14641
Suriname411925
Uruguay8476,45017
Venezuela7370811
Asia
Central Asia
Kazakhstan1276671,749
Kyrgyzstan4233240
Tajikistan331289
Turkmenistan4128617
Uzbekistan4835959
Eastern Asia
China1789,476170
China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region3022130
China, Macao Special Administrative Region337-
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)1048228
Japan2683,053165
Mongolia382168
Republic of Korea (South Korea)821,777107
Taiwan1171,10889
Tibet-3-
South-eastern Asia
Brunei Darussalam345913
Cambodia552045
Indonesia4461,921119
Lao People's Democratic Republic372891
Malaysia12793661
Myanmar6246112
Philippines1411,37371
Singapore4634712
Thailand6350836
Timor-Leste432936
Viet Nam581,1093
Southern Asia
Afghanistan914583
Bangladesh6684527
Bhutan3313818
India2195,420241
Iran (Islamic Republic of)981,15826
Maldives421462
Nepal451,02010
Pakistan1402,44746
Sri Lanka684547
Western Asia
Abkhazia25117-
Armenia5368842
Azerbaijan6434454
Bahrain431458
Cyprus6430332
Georgia5466763
Iraq6363912
Israel113731132
Jordan7536424
Kuwait482519
Lebanon5734228
Nagorno-Karabakh (Artsakh)7591
Northern Cyprus6851
Oman441309
Qatar374912
Saudi Arabia8247247
South Ossetia (Occupied Georgia)757-
State of Palestine6724817
Syrian Arab Republic5741166
Türkiye572,76054
United Arab Emirates5913715
Yemen8053013
Europe
Central Europe
Austria1312,893127
Czechia1251,656119
Czechoslovakia-1,55286
East Germany-65935
Germany2819,673322
Hungary1681,10695
Poland1702,771206
Slovenia35250130
Eastern Europe
Belarus4861,8314,044
Bulgaria1021,71838
Crimea-2-
Donetsk (Occupied Ukraine)7522
Luhansk (Occupied Ukraine)-102
Republic of Moldova4557121
Romania4612,62771
Russian Federation9854,80217,021
Slovakia11166744
Transnistria121011
Ukraine1962,373926
Yugoslavia-43639
Northern Europe
Denmark265795102
Estonia67677138
Faroe Islands31409
Finland1051,054118
Guernsey581-
Iceland5828116
Ireland8266042
Isle of Man443-
Jersey5671
Latvia5251743
Lithuania21177945
Northern Ireland2233-
Norway1081,886166
Sark146-
Scotland19273-
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands33-
Sweden1811,589118
United Kingdom6904,5761,247
Wales41847
Åland Islands157-
Southern Europe
Albania504359
Andorra461144
Bosnia and Herzegovina952164
Croatia8362819
Gibraltar4431
Greece2211,498123
Holy See (Vatican)2461-
Italy3174,090187
Kosovo35451-
Malta9317518
Montenegro441645
North Macedonia1,9738,0413
Portugal1011,26230
San Marino251621
Serbia6759623
Serbia and Montenegro-947
Spain4524,607268
Western Europe
Belgium2281,81786
France4758,186535
Liechtenstein2413111
Luxembourg7729536
Monaco271289
Netherlands1641,50280
Switzerland561,02788
Oceania
Australia and New Zealand
Australia3252,38699
Christmas Island33-
Cocos (Keeling) Islands33-
New Zealand11457874
Norfolk Island412-
Melanesia
Fiji60150-
New Caledonia560-
Papua New Guinea782335
Solomon Islands391261
Vanuatu281331
Micronesia
Guam536-
Kiribati25952
Marshall Islands19572
Micronesia (Federated States of)23544
Nauru6675-
Northern Mariana Islands625-
Palau26481
Polynesia
American Samoa421-
Cook Islands4358-
French Polynesia261-
Niue1336-
Pitcairn415-
Samoa371595
Tokelau44-
Tonga408212
Tuvalu35481
Wallis and Futuna Islands432-
Supranational
European Union523,5861
Soviet Union-2,816467

Where is our PEP data sourced from?

OpenSanctions automatically monitors and imports global databases into our data, such as lists of world leaders. We are also expanding our coverage of nationally published data, such as lists of parliamentarians or state governors. We enrich the PEP data with further information about the potential influence of officeholders, e.g. to reflect a person holding both a public office and running a business.

NamePublisherCountryCoverageEntities
Argentina Members of ParliamentHonorable Cámara de Diputados de la Nación ArgentinaArgentinaupdated daily258
Brazil Politically Exposed PersonsCGU (General Control Office of the Union)Brazilupdated daily135,002
Cayman Islands Members of ParliamentThe Parliament of the Cayman IslandsCayman Islandsupdated daily62
Cayman Islands senior judicial officersCayman Islands Judicial AdministrationCayman Islandsupdated weekly20
CIA World Factbook heads of state and governmentCentral Intelligence Agency (CIA)United Statesupdated daily1,212
CIA World LeadersCentral Intelligence Agency (CIA)United Statesupdated daily11,113
Colombia Joining the Dots PEPsJoining the Dots with PEPs (Colombia)non-official sourceColombiaupdated daily188
Colombian Administrative Department of Public Service PEP DeclarationsDeparatamento Administrativo del la Funcion PublicaColombiaupdated daily9,787
Estonia Members of the RiigikoguRiigikoguEstoniaupdated daily102
EU Prominent Public FunctionsOfficial Journal of the European UnionEuropean Unionupdated daily1,392
Every PoliticianMySociety (UK Citizens Online Democracy)non-official sourcenot updated59,126
Hong Kong Principal OfficialsGovHKHong Kong SAR China52
Indonesia 2018 Regional Head Election ResultsKomisi Pemilihan Umum (KPU)Indonesiaupdated daily652
Lithuania Members of the SeimasSeimas of the Republic of LithuaniaLithuania141
Members of German Legislatures from AbgeordnetenWatchParlamentwatch e.V.non-official sourceGermanyupdated daily2,645
Members of the European Commitee of the RegionsEuropean Committee of the RegionsEuropean Unionupdated daily609
Members of the European ParliamentEuropean ParliamentEuropean Unionupdated daily920
Members of the Hong Kong Legislative CouncilHong Kong Legislative CouncilHong Kong SAR China189
Members of the National Assembly of VenezuelaAsamblea Nacional de VenezuelaVenezuela275
Members of the Parliament of CubaProyecto Inventarionon-official sourceCubaupdated monthly471
Members of the United States CongressLibrary of CongressUnited Statesupdated daily1,181
Mexico's governorsConferencia Nacional de Gobernadoresnon-official sourceMexicoupdated daily91
Mexico's senatorsSenado de La RepúblicaMexicoupdated daily128
Nigeria Joining the Dots PEPs and PEP RelativesJoining the Dots with PEPs (Nigeria)non-official sourceNigeriaupdated daily4,403
Nigerian Politically Exposed Persons data by ChipperChippernon-official sourceNigeriaupdated daily42,765
North Macedonia elected and appointed officialsState Commission for Prevention of CorruptionNorth Macedoniaupdated daily9,507
PEPs from Chile interest and asset declarationsConsejo para la Transparencia (CPLT)Chileupdated daily6,707
Plural Legislators (formerly OpenStates)Pluralnon-official sourceUnited Statesupdated weekly11,520
RuPEP Public Database of PEPs in Russia and BelarusRuPEPnon-official sourceRussianot updated86,041
Slovenian political officials from ZvezoskopOštro (Slovenia)non-official sourceSlovenianot updated458
Uruguayan Politically Exposed Persons (PEP)Secretaría Nacional para la Lucha contra el Lavado de Activos y Financiamiento del TerrorismoUruguay6,814
US State Department Senior OfficialsUS State DepartmentUnited Statesupdated daily595
Wikidata Politically Exposed PersonsWikidatanon-official sourceupdated daily175,829

Official sources are government authorities and inter-governmental agencies. Non-official sources are community, civil-society or journalistic organisations, including:

  • Wikidata Politically Exposed Persons data is maintained by volunteers in a similar manner to the rest of the Wikimedia Foundation projects. OpenSanctions monitors specific positions in national and sub-national legislatures, executives and senior administrators for changes. As a volunteer-driven project, there are very limited guarantees of how up-to-date the information is.
  • RuPEP is a database of politically exposed persons from Russia and Belarus, as well as their families and business interests. It is maintained by an expert team of researchers. Learn more at RuPEP.org.
  • mySociety's EveryPolitician project contains a significant foundation of data for national legislatures. However, its maintenance ended in June 2019 and the data is quickly becoming more outdated. We aim to remove or replace this dataset in time.

How do I use the data?

You can download the PEP bulk data or look up individual entries using the web search or API. Commercial users can license the dataset as part of the OpenSanctions bulk data license. We do not offer a separate licensing option for PEPs data alone.

Our methodology documentation explains how PEP position information can be used to select custom subsets of the data for specific use cases.

How can I help?

If you want to help map out political positions and their office holders, please consider using one of the following paths:

  • Want to add or enrich individual PEP profiles? Contribute to Wikidata's WikiProject Every Politician. This is a community-driven effort to maintain a database of political positions. Like all Wikipedia projects, it has community review and verification standards. Start by getting a sense of Wikidata's political data model, and allow for a delay of several days for Wikidata edits to be reflected in OpenSanctions.
  • Want to add a bulk data crawler? Our crawlers are open source code, using the zavod data collection framework (Python). Check out the data inclusion criteria, and the crawler writing tutorial. Our data source wishlist is a good source of inspiration.
  • Want to partner up? Please feel free to reach out to us to discuss other ideas for collaboration. As we are cleaning up and enhancing the position listings above using bulk data processing techniques, individual corrections sent via email will be of somewhat limited benefit.